Method of Black Mustard Cultivation & Benefits – Overview

Method of Black Mustard Cultivation & Benefits

Mustard is the second most cultivated oilseed crop in India after groundnut. Many farmers are getting good profits by developing it. The speciality of mustard cultivation is that it requires less water than wheat. Due to this, the cultivation of mustard is of great importance for the farmers in those areas where water is scarce. This is why most of the farmers of Haryana and Rajasthan prefer to cultivate mustard. Considering the usefulness of mustard, its market demand always remains. In this, the cultivation of black mustard is beneficial for the farmers. Farmers are earning big money from the cultivation of black mustard seeds. Therefore, black mustard is also in great demand in the market.

According to media reports, research has found black mustard seeds. This is confirmed by a research paper available on the NCB site. Black mustard seeds are high in selenium which helps fight constipation and gas in the stomach. Apart from this, it is also said to be good for skin and joint problems. You can take advantage of this by including it in your diet.

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The benefit of Black Mustard 

Farmers can earn a lot of money by cultivating black mustard. Black mustard is more in demand than yellow mustard. This is because the need for its oil is also high. Given this, the cultivation of black mustard is profitable for farmers. On the other hand, there is a possibility of good mustard prices in the open market. In this way, the farmers cultivating mustard can also expect good profit this time.

Sowing Time 

Mostly in different states of the country, sowing of mustard crops is done from October to December, and the month of March to April is for harvesting. Many farmers have sown mustard, and many farmers are planting it late. According to agricultural experts, the best time for sowing mustard is considered between the 5th to 25th of October. Good production is obtained by sowing mustard at this time, so farmers should sow mustard till October 25. Sowing after this gives less production.

Flat and well-drained sandy loam-to-loam soil is suitable for a good yield of black mustard. However, it can be cultivated even on alkaline land by selecting suitable varieties. Where the soil is alkaline, gypsum should be used at the rate of 5 tonnes per hectare every third year. The requirement of gypsum may vary according to the soil pH value.

Field Preparation 

Mustard cultivation can be done in both rainfed and irrigated conditions. While preparing the field for this in irrigated areas, the first ploughing should be done with soil turning plough with a tractor. After this, three to four ploughing should be done with a fixed plough. After each ploughing, the field should be levelled so that lumps are not formed. If there is a lack of moisture in the land before sowing, then sow after ploughing the field. Before planting the crop, the area should be free from weeds. At the time of the last ploughing, mix 1.5% quinalphos at the rate of 25 kg per hectare to protect the crop from underground insects. Moreover, New Holland Tractor has advanced features and comes at a valuable price range for farmers. 

Planting Method 

For the sowing of black mustard seed, a quantity of 4-5 kg per hectare is sufficient. Seeds should be treated before sowing to protect them from insect diseases. For seed treatment, Carbendazim (Bavistin) 2 gm or Epron (SD 35) 6 gm fungicide should be used at the rate of per kg seed. The distance of the source from plant to plant is 10 cm. Keeping and row-to-row distance of 45 cm should be maintained. Seeds are sown 5 cm. They should be buried to a depth of. In rainfed areas, the depth of the source should be kept according to the moisture content of the soil. Sowing of mustard seeds should be done with the help of an indigenous plough or seed drill.

Manure & Fertilisers 

In non-irrigated areas, the mustard crop requires 40-60 kg of nitrogen, 20-30 kg of phosphorus, 20 kg of potash and 20 kg of sulphur. At the same time, 80-120 kg nitrogen, 50-60 kg phosphorus, 20-40 kg potash and 20-40 kg sulphur can be used for irrigated crops.


For a good crop of mustard, the first irrigation should be done between 30 to 40 days at the flowering stage. Second irrigation is given at the time of pod formation (60-70 days). Where water is scarce or where there is saline water, it is better to do only one irrigation. Moreover, Mini Tractor has advanced technology which can handle every type of equipment easily. 

Weed Management

Due to weeds, the yield of mustard decreases by up to 60 per cent. That’s why weeding should be done after 25 to 30 days of its sowing by removing the weeds and throwing them out of the field. Sparrow or hand hoe can be used to remove weeds. 

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Mustard crop gets ready by February-March. The crop should be harvested only when 75 percent of the mustard pods turn yellow. Because seed weight and oil percentage decrease in most varieties after this stage. Harvesting should always be done in the morning because there is more moisture in the crop at night, due to which harvesting is not done properly.

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